Black Twitter

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#BlackTwitter Example

Black Twitter, is an online community that leverages the social platform Twitter to discuss and share race-related messages with one another with a predominant focus on the African American identity. Twitter, created by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, and Biz Stone, allows users to “tweet” short messages and include hashtags to classify and group content together [1]. Black Twitter leverages Twitter’s hashtag functionality to create hashtags specific to their community. Users are able to create specific content to construct dialogue exploring the cultural nuances of the Black identity. Black Twitter is most active when race-related issues occur and there is little to no reaction from the general public. A prominent example is the fatal shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, which observed a spark in online activism throughout the nation by the Black community on Twitter. Some of the hashtags used include #HandsUpDontShoot, #BlackLivesMatter, and #JusticeForMikeBrown. Black Twitter not only brings the community together in times of tragedy, but it also incepts discussions of TV shows as well as partaking in lighthearted discussions through community-specific memes and racialized hashtags. Black Twitter leads to ethical issues including generalization and emotional consequences.


The term, coined in 2009, stemmed from Choire Sicha’s article “What Were Black People Talking About on Twitter Last Night”. In his article, Sicha identifies the coming of Black Twitter through its use of race-related hashtags and Twitter's capability to expand beyond one's own personal network -- something Sicha points out Facebook and Myspace was never able to accomplish[2]. Through hashtags and viral content, Black Twitter not only attracts the attention of individuals in the community but also users who may not usually associate with Black Twitter.

The community began as a way to share one's perspective in a space where fundamental values were still agreed upon and set by cultural norms. The Black Twitter community began through humor with the first major tweets including the hashtags #YouKnowYoureBlackWhen and #YouKnowYoureFromQueens which were aimed toward Black Twitter users. These hashtags typically had the context of some meme relating to some form of the popular culture of the Black Twitter community. It was with these hashtags and others to follow that encouraged conversation between separate parties to then create a window into how African Americans thought and felt towards events in the present world.

South Africa

There has been a rise popularity of a Black Twitter community in South Africa, as well. In 2012, a twitter debate about Cape Town being racist sparked one of the first tweets that led to a South African Black Twitter movement. The tweet was by Helen Zille, who said directed her words at singer Simphiwe Dana: "You're a highly respected black professional. Don't try to be a professional black. It demeans you." From that tweet arose the hashtag #ProfessionalBlack and a lot of backlash from the black community towards Helen Zille. After 19 years of apartheid, Black Twitter serves as an outlet for the black community to voice their opinions, since social inequality remains a part of modern day South Africa. While the most used language in South Africa is English, there are 11 other official languages that have been used on Black Twitter, diversifying its linguistics. [3]

Racialized Hashtags

Hashtags are pieces of metadata used to classify and group user-generated content into unified themes. When used appropriately, hashtags create curated content that can be followed and is easily searchable. The only difference between racialized hashtags and regular hashtags are that they are specific to race and culture. A critical part to the success of Black Twitter is the use of racialized hashtags to help facilitate race-based conversations across Twitter’s global audience[4]. These hashtags are specific to the Black community by mimicking the vernacular of their community. The content ranges from humorous memes to social justice issues the community cares deeply about[5]. Examples of popular racialized hashtags include, but are not limited to, the following: #OnlyInTheGhetto, #BlackGirlMagic, #HandsUpDontShoot, and #LivingWhileBlack.

With these racialized hashtags as a primary identifier of Black Twitter tweets, they are not all encompassing of all Black individuals on Twitter and reinforce stereotypes of the Black community. Not all racialized hashtags should be taken seriously, and not all portray an accurate representation of all individuals who identify with the Black community. Racial bias comes into play when users associate racialized hashtags with the Black community as a whole[6]. Oliver L. Haimson and Anna Lauren Hoffmann, who are scholars at the University of Michigan and the University of Washington, respectively, state that marginalized and culturally stigmatized communities struggle the most with their online identity[7] as racialized hashtags become an issue when their meaning feeds into stigma and becomes part of a generalization.

Example of Black Twitter discussion around Ferguson on Twitters Trending Section (August 2014


Racialized hashtags are also used as memes, where aspects of culture are imitated digitally. The hashtag #atablackpersonfuneral was followed by “The other gang members stand beside the casket planning the revenge”, “you don't have to cremate them if they ass already ashy.”, or “... there is always at least one white person who feels completely out of place”[8]. Tweets tagged with #atablackpersonfuneral are meant to be comical but reinforce stereotypes that individuals in the Black community try to disassociate from.


Following racist comments made by Paula Deen, a white American cooking show host, Black Twitter exploded with the use of the hashtag #PaulasBestDishes which served as a dark parody playing off Paula’s role as a chef. Examples of tweets tagged with #PaulasBestDishes include “Massa-roni and cheese”, “White Devil’s Food Cake, “Back of the Bus Biscuits”, “Ku Klux Klandike Bars”, and “Lynchables”, which are also jabs at Deen’s Southern heritage and speciality[9]. #PaulasBestDishes is an example of hashtag activism with memetic underlays to the tweet created. Professor James H. Moor’s law states that “As technological revolutions increase their social impact, ethical problems increase.”[10] The impact Black Twitter has can be seen in the deterioration of Paula Deen’s career and the immediate cancellation of two cooking shows she hosted following the rise of #PaulasBestDishes on Twitter[11].


Following the shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown by police officer Darren Wilson on August 9th, 2014 in Ferguson, Missouri, Black Twitter posted photos and commentary on Michael Brown’s death. The photos quickly went viral, and ‘#Ferguson’ appeared over 8 million times on Twitter in the span of one month[12]. Hashtags related to Ferguson such as #HandsUpDontShoot, #MikeBrown, and #STL also populated Twitter feeds and Trending Topics. Through the use of hashtags, Black Twitter was able to share information not publicized by mainstream media sources and spark reactions throughout the United States. The virality of Ferguson content can be attributed to the raw and disturbing footage of Mike Brown's body on the ground as it elicits both feelings of indignation and terror.


In 2013, many racist events occurred on campus at the University of Michigan (UM). Following an incident where a fraternity threw a racist-themed party on campus, the Black Student Union (BSU) of the University of Michigan started the hashtag #BBUM, an acronym for "Being Black at the University of Michigan". [13] This hashtag was used by the BSU to help bring together the black community at the University of Michigan. Many students shared their stories of racism on campus and the hashtag gained national attention, paving the way for black student organizations on other campuses to spark their own movement. The need to create a community within black students is rooted in a lawsuit filed against the University of Michigan, which removed efforts of Affirmative Action, thereby decreasing the population of black students on campus in recent years. [14]


This hashtag was used to symbolize both comicality and similarity in Thanksgiving Stories. This hashtag was something that many people bonded and felt a connection with and it created a sense of a positive online community. Tweets under this hashtag consisted of multiple images reflected with sentences that many black families could relate to. These tweets also often contained jokes about common things that people say at Thanksgiving dinners along with "clapbacks". It's often joked that among black families that older people are blunt but don't expect a response from the younger generation as they must respect the elders. Typical questions are "How are your grades?", "Why are you still single?", "Why you don't have kids yet?" and etc. Jokes also focus on how dinner is never on time as they are still cooking after the designated time for everyone to meet for dinner.[15]


The hashtag #BlackOnCampus was often used around discussion of discrimination and racism on college campuses. #BlackOnCampus was popularized in the University of Missouri Protests from 2015-2016, in which the light consequences for racial incidents on campus was brought into question, answered by demonstrations and protests. There were also demonstrations at New York, Smith College in Massachusetts, and Claremont McKenna College in California. The use of the hashtag primarily revolved around ignorance of non-black students and administrators to microaggressions black students faced in their day-to-day lives on campus. The tweets also served as a call to action to promote inclusion of black students in the campus culture while simultaneously addressing systematic racism at Universities. [16]


The #ICantBreathe hashtag was created following the death of Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York City. NYPD officers approached Garner under the suspicion that Garner was selling individual cigarettes from cigarette packs. Garner rebutted, claiming that he was not selling cigarettes. Promptly after, the officers attempted to arrest him and Garner was thrown to the sidewalk and put in a chokehold by Officer Daniel Pantaleo following Garner's refusal to place his hands behind his back. After over 15 seconds of being placed in this chokehold, Garner lost consciousness. Ambulances were called to the scene under the belief that Garner was still breathing, so CPR was not performed and Garner passed away. The grand jury ruled not to indict Pantaleo, the cop responsible for the murder of Eric Garner. This hashtag was not only a cry of injustice against Garner and against the fact that Pantaleo got to walk free, but was also a rallying cry to the black members of the community so that they would remember to stand up against oppression. The fact that this interaction was a white cop vs black victim situation made the hashtag a racially powered tool which was used predominantly by black people on Twitter.


Black Girl Magic (#BlackGirlMagic or #BlackGirlAreMagic) is a movement that was popularized by CaShawn Thompson in 2013. The movement was created to celebrate the power, beauty, and resilience of black women [17]. The term black girl magic is often used as a synonym for “black excellence” and used to highlight black girls and women accomplishments in order to fight racism and stereotypes. The hashtag has been used in tweets ranging from celebrating tennis stars Venus and Serena Williams to proud friends posting pictures of their friends graduating from college. The movement to highlight black women and girls through #BlackGirlMagic is still going strong.

A subset of the #BlackGirlMagic hashtag, #BlackBoyJoy also exists to celebrate the accomplishments of of black men. According to sources, it first appeared in 2016 after rapper and singer-songwriter Chance the Rapper tweeted a picture of himself on the red carpet following the 2016 Video Music Awards Ceremony. [18]

Power Structures and #Hashtags

Back in 2013, there was a movement that was created for the empowerment of black people and the awareness of racial inequalities and police brutality of the black community. This movement is formally known as the Black Lives Movement (or, often referred to as, BLM). The American society was in turmoil as police brutality and general violence was at an all-time high. There were wrongful killings of black people and very evident instances of racial inequality and discrimination. One day, Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi decided to create a hashtag that would symbolize the passion and significance of the lives of black people everywhere. The hashtag started off roughly. Many people spoke out about it or posted about it daily but it was just not enough. No one was picking up the news about it- all until celebrities got word of it and were able to use their own power structures on social media to spread the word. People like the late Mac Miller used the hashtag and helped it to go viral. As a famous man, Mac Miller knew he had a fan-base and he knew that his leadership and power could help further a movement that he was passionate about. Beyond this comes his race. Mac Miller was a white man in American society. He knew that beyond his successful career was his automatic white power. He had his own beliefs and used his voice to make this movement heard. But, what did this all mean? What does it mean for a famous, white man to not only share a BLM post but to be so passionate about it that he put the responsibility of supporting BLM on white fans who listen and enjoy rap music (specifically produced by black people)?

Mac Miller’s tweet instantly went viral. He got backlash but, most importantly, he got an immense amount of support. Blacks and whites and all other races took a side and were made aware of what BLM was about and what it was doing. Though Mac Miller had his own opinions, he used his power on social media and over his fans to help make this cause worth the share and support. Because of celebrities like Mac Miller, Twitter involved itself into the movement as well. Once the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag was secured and popular, Twitter created a symbol to follow it. The symbol includes a triangle of colored hands in the shape of the “black power” symbolism created by the Black Panthers. This is significant because not only was the movement moving forward but social media was the very reason why. Power structures in social media influence and have direct impacts on the ways in which society and its citizen receive and send out information about the current world. For Twitter, a very prosperous company, to get involved brings even more power to the table. With now the support of many people, many celebrities, and Twitter all in one, #BlackLivesMatter got the exact fame and momentum it needed to bring awareness and support to black lives.

As Paolo Gerbaudo mentions in his Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism, social media creates a sense of togetherness, it joins identities, and it is the unity at the core sense of mobilization by creating choreographing an assembly (Gerbaudo, ch.1). What he means is social media unifies all kinds of people regardless of race, sex, sexual preference, gender, and beliefs into an assembly of, namely, “people”. Mac Miller’s whiteness and colorlessness of Twitter were ignored for the simple fact that there was a general sense of passion for black people. People all over the map were able to join forces and fight for something they believed in. Social media allowed and amplified this. Though there were marches that helped gain BLM publicity, social media was the very platform that gave it its voice and that gave it the fame it needed to prosper.

Power is important in any aspect of society. Depending on who says what, the world has turned to the face of screens and has mentally and emotionally plugged into social sites as a way of keeping up with the world and supporting their own beliefs. The assembly that has been and can even be choreographed has created an identity of no identity at all (Gerbaudo, ch. 2). Social Media is the very thing that helps make this world connect by being a window for emotional conversations and power to be used for the better of mankind and human interactions. [19]



The community called [r/BlackPeopleTwitter] on the popular social media site is a gathering place for many people in the Black Twitter community. r/BlackPeopleTwitter is a subreddit which gathers screenshots of Black people being "hilarious or insightful on social media."[20] The subreddit has just over 3 million subscribers and has an active user base. This community is generally lighthearted and is filled with comical stories and tweets from the Black Twitter sphere. The subreddit centers around the idea that black culture has a unique way of seeing everyday life and focuses on viewing the world through the eyes of the black community. [20] The community is fairly strict on the rule that all posts made to the subreddit must be screenshots of posts made by black people only. Recently on April 1, /r/BlackPeopleTwitter announced that only black people may post and comment in the subreddit. In order to be verified as black, they had to post in another subreddit with proof of their "blackness". This resulted in many people simply posting pictures of their skin tone but some people also posted pictures of things they considered black culture. They reverted this decision a few days later but recently they have also announced the "country club" designation in which only verified members of the community may comment. As of Aprile 27th, 2019, r/BlackPeopleTwitter has 3,059,919 subscribers, making it one of the more prominent subreddits on the the app [21].

Anonymous Black-run Twitter accounts

Multiple Twitter accounts run by multiple black people have gained large followings without revealing their true identities. A large account known for this goes by the alias "The Hood Oracle" under the twitter handle @emoblackthot. The Hood Oracle has over 119 thousand followers and brings together the Black Twitter community through topics of popular culture, health, and politics. The Hood Oracle has also gained attention from celebrities like Kehlani and Ariana Grande. A tradition that the woman behind The Hood Oracle is responsible for is tweeting every night reminding her following to do their skincare routines. The Hood Oracle also shares comedic material on zodiac signs and helps black business owners and artists gain media attention by retweeting their content to her page with a large following.

Ethical Implications


A wide range of people identify and connect with many of the Hashtags used throughout Black Twitter. Racialized hashtags walk a fine line of truth as they create relatable content, but fail to accurately represent all Black individuals. Using Copp’s understanding of self-identity, an individual’s self-esteem is linked to a variety of characteristics and traits that belong to their identity group. Whether or not the individual believes these properties are applicable to themselves is irrelevant as these properties are still associated with him or her[22]. An example of this would be Black Twitter users circulating tweets about growing up in the ghetto. While not all Black Twitter users grew up in a ghetto, these tweets are still applied to, and are stereotypically associated with, all Black individuals. Additionally, those who are not black, but were raised in a predominantly black environment might relate to Black Twitter content. This raises the ethical concern of generalization, especially in the Black community, which has a history of struggling to break free from negative stereotypes in attempts to reshape how society views them. The use of generalizations aids in the process of “othering”, where discrimination occurs through classifications of characteristics and differences. Black Twitter is made up of a diverse group of individuals who hold different experiences. Placing an understanding that the truth behind these racist hashtags can be applied to any member part of Black Twitter would be unethical and should be considered.

Black Twitter

Interaction with Mainstream News

Mainstream news tends to focus from a particular angle of a news story - many activists on Black Twitter believe that mainstream media primarily gives emphasis to white voices and white stories. In contrast with mainstream news, Black Twitter gives voice to the issues that mainstream media doesn't cover or hides. According to a study, 75% of black Americans agreed that the news media only covered news that they would describe as "slightly/not at all" accurate. In contrast to the criticism of fake news, many activists on Black Twitter don't focus on how true the news story is but critique the fact that certain facts are emphasized over others. One user writes "I think they're reporting a lot of opinion. I don't feel like its news," and therefore these users rely on twitter subcultures as a source of news. They as well as reporters are able to go to their timelines and read conversations in first person to report in first hand experiences. However, many members of these racial communities online feel as if their tweets are being harvested by journalists and therefore expose their twitter accounts to potential online harassment. [23].

Increased Power and Impact

In the past 10 years, the user base of Black Twitter has grown significantly and received public recognition from even those who are not in the Black community. Twitter, which is in its “power stage” by James H. Moor’s definition, has the ability to impact those who directly and indirectly interact with the social company [24]. Based off how Black Twitter chooses to exercise the application, different ethical impacts will be produced as a result. Through its use of racialized hashtags, Black Twitter has leveraged the platform to increase their national impact, specifically crafting dialogues targeted towards racial concerns and injustices affecting their community. In the case of Ferguson, Black Twitter utilized racialized hashtags as a part of their activism tactic to demand justice. However, Black Twitter must be cognizant of this power and the ethical implications of how they choose to execute their power and Ferguson is just one context. The cancellation and demise of Paula Deen’s career exemplify the increased power of Black Twitter and negative impacts a force like Black Twitter can cause. While the cancellation of Paula Deen’s show may be justified in response to her racist and distasteful comments, there are more people than just Paula Deen that suffered the consequences of the cancellation such as her crew, staff, and network. The power and impact Black Twitter garner should be something paid close attention to as more moral and ethical implications arise with the growing user base of Black Twitter.

Emotional Consequences

Black Twitter stands out from other media groups due to their ability to facilitate conversations around social injustices. An associate professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, Safiya Umoja Noble, draws attention to how these injustices that circulate on Twitter may contain sensitive content that triggers deeply rooted emotional pain. On Twitter one can filter out potential negative tweets from their feed by blocking keywords or phrases. Content moderators, who handle the removal of offensive material, are not able to completely keep social media free of triggering, inappropriate posts. This leads users to be unexpectedly bombarded with graphic images of racialized violence causing negative socioemotional effects [25]. While Black Twitter is effective in spreading awareness of social injustices, it is also spreading triggering images that can have severe impacts on the mental and emotional health of those who are subject to continuous institutional discrimination. [26]

Fake Stories

Currently, there are no notable fake stories that have been linked to Black Twitter, it is still a risk that the community can be vulnerable to and can have significant impacts on the community.

Twitter has been accused of being a harvesting ground for fake news. According to a report from The Knight Foundation, there are more than 700,000 Twitter accounts that are linked to more than 600 sites that spread misinformation or conspiracy stories[27] In addition, because Twitter only allows for 280 characters in a single post, it increases the probability for a story to be misunderstood or taken out of context.

Hints of Voyeurism

Because Black Twitter as a platform is no less of a public space than Twitter itself, it has consequentially showcased conversations that historically have primarily occurred in segregated spaces such as black barbershops, black churches, and black colleges.[28] Individuals interact in this online community in order to stay connected, informed, and unified, not for the purpose of educating those who are personally unable to identify with the black community -namely white people- on black culture. However, because of the public nature, strong prevalence, and increasing popularity of Black Twitter, spectators have flocked to the scene in -what some would argue is- a voyeuristic manner. This zoo-like environment has been emphasized by the creation of the previously mentioned Reddit group with 3.1 million members entitled, "r/BlackPeopleTwiiter."[29] Though the demographics of the group are unclear, with an established page purpose of showcasing "screenshots of black people being hilarious on social media," and the fact that 65% of Reddit users are non-HIspanic White adults,[30] it's reasonable to assume that many of the group members are white individuals fetishizing black culture. Thus, the public, inclusive nature of Black Twitter inherently allows for individuals who are not apart of the community to observe as flies on the wall, for better or worse.

Lack of Intersectionality

Though Black Twitter is widely celebrated for being a collection of progressive, politically active, and often humorous posts/threads, many users have been able to critique it and note where the platform falls short. Namely, as with all social media sites, and online/offline environments alike, Black Twitter has been criticized for it's lack of intersectionality. Because rights tend to be acquired in a hierarchical sort of way, when a black voice is heard and amplified, it is often one of a black, cis-gendered, straight male. Meanwhile, as Alicia Garza, a creator of the #BlackLivesMatter movement, notes, "our sisters, queer and trans and disabled folk take up roles in the background or not at all."[31] [32] Therefore, there is room for ethical evaluation regarding the representation within Black Twitter and acknowledging which black voices in particular are being routinely showcased.


  1. Picard, A. (2018, March 28). "The history of Twitter, 140 characters at a time". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  2. Sicha, C. (2009, November 11). "What Were Black People Talking About on Twitter Last Night?". Medium. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  3. “#RainbowNation: The Rise of South Africa's 'Black Twitter'.” The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor, 7 Mar. 2013,
  4. Brock, A. (2012). From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), 529-549. doi:10.1080/08838151.2012.732147
  5. Sharma, S. (2013). Black Twitter? Racial Hashtags, Networks, and Contagion. New Formations, 78(78), 46-64. doi:10.3898/newf.78.02.2013
  6. Ibid
  7. Haimson, O. L., & Hoffmann, A. L. (2016). Constructing and enforcing "authentic" identity online: Facebook, real names, and non-normative identities. First Monday, 21(6). doi:10.5210/fm.v21i6.6791
  8. Sharma, S. (2013). Black Twitter? Racial Hashtags, Networks and Contagion. New Formations, 78(78), 46-64. doi:10.3898/newf.78.02.2013
  9. Vats, A. (2015). Cooking Up Hashtag Activism: #PaulasBestDishes and Counternarratives of Southern Food. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 12(2), 209-213. doi:10.1080/14791420.2015.1014184
  10. Brey, P. A. (2012). Anticipating ethical issues in emerging IT. Ethics and Information Technology, 14(4), 305-317. doi:10.1007/s10676-012-9293-y
  11. Vats, A. (2015). Cooking Up Hashtag Activism: #PaulasBestDishes and Counternarratives of Southern Food. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 12(2), 209-213. doi:10.1080/14791420.2015.1014184
  12. Bonilla, Y., & Rosa, J. (2015). #Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist, 42(1), 4-17. doi:10.1111/amet.12112
  13. Murrey, Remi (November 19, 2017). "4 years later, reflections on a generation of #BBUM". The Michigan Daily. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  14. Byng, Rhonesha (November 20, 2013). "#BBUM Hashtag Sparks Dialogue about Diversity At The University of Michigan". HuffPost. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  15. "#Thanksgivingwithblackfamilies Hashtag". Twitter. 22 Nov. 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  16. Rogers, Katie (November 12, 2015). "How #BlackOnCampus Convened a Twitter Debate on Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
  17. Jones, Feminista (February 8, 2019). "For CaShawn Thompson, Black Girl Magic Was Always the Truth"Beacon Broadside. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  18. Harrison, Ayanna. (2016). #BlackBoyJoy and Rae Sremmurd: The commoditization of blackness in music. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from
  19. Gerbaudo, Paolo. Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism. Pluto Press, 2012. JSTOR,
  20. 20.0 20.1 [r/BlackPeopleTwitter], Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  22. Shoemaker, David W. “Self-Exposure and Exposure of the Self: Informational Privacy and the Presentation of Identity.” Ethics and Information Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, 2009, pp. 3–15., doi:10.1007/s10676-009-9186-x.
  23. "How Black Twitter and other social media communities interact with mainstream news". Knight Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  24. Brey, P. A. (2012). Anticipating ethical issues in emerging IT. Ethics and Information Technology, 14(4), 305-317. doi:10.1007/s10676-012-9293-y
  25. Noble, Safiya Umoja. “Critical Surveillance Literacy in Social Media: Interrogating Black Death and Dying Online.” Black Camera, vol. 9, no. 2, 2018, p. 147., doi:10.2979/blackcamera.9.2.10.
  26. Ibid
  27. Schwartz, Jason (October 4, 2018). "Twitter still awash in fake news, study finds". Politico. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  28. Guo, Jeff (October 22, 2015). "What People Don't Get about 'Black Twitter'". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  29. "“r/BlackPeopleTwitter.” Reddit,"
  30. Sattelberg, William. "The Demographics of Reddit: Who Uses the Site?". Tech Junkie. 22 Mar. 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  31. Garza, Alicia (October 7, 2014). "A Herstory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement". The Feminist Wire. Retrieved April 28, 2019."
  32. "Thomas, Dexter. “When 'Black Twitter' Sounds like 'White Twitter'.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 15 July 2015,"
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